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[학술정보] 영어과학논문 작성에 유용한 영어 표현

November.2016 No Comment

 CT Press 학술정보 코너에서는 여러 차례에 걸쳐 영어로 학술논문 작성하는 방법에 관하여 살펴보고 있다. 이번에는 영어 학술논문을 구성하는 장별로 유용하게 사용할 수 있는 표현 방법과 어휘에 대해서 집중적으로 다루고 있다. 크게 서론, 연구방법, 결과, 논의/결론의 네 부분으로 나누어 작성하였으며, 각 부분을 구성하는 내용별로 다시 분류하여 표현들을 정리하였다. 영어 논문 작성시 작성하는 부분과 내용에 맞추어 여기에 나오는 예시 중 적절한 표현을 골라서 활용할 수 있기를 기대한다. 본 기사는 영국의 Imperial College에서 출판된 책을 번역한 『유학생 및 과학자를 위한 영어논문 작성법』 (HILARY GLASMAN-DEAL, 청범출판사, 2011)을 참고 및 발췌하였다. 모국어가 영어가 아닌 사람들을 위해 쓰여진 책으로, 본문에는 매우 자세한 설명과 용례가 수록되어 있다.


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1. 서론부에 많이 사용되는 표현들
  1) 중요성을 설정
   ● a major current focus in ….
   ● numerous experiments have established that …
   ● … have generated considerable recent research interest.
   ● it is generally accepted that …
   ● are attracting widespread interest in fields such as …
   ● … play an important role in …
   ● much research in recent years has focused on …

  2) 이전이나 현재의 연구 내용과 기여도 등을 보여주는 문헌 검토

 achieve
 address
 adopt
 analyze
 apply
 argue
 assume
 attempt
 calculate
 categorize
 carry out
 choose
 claim
 classify
 collect
 compare
 concentrate (on)
 conclude
 conduct
 confirm
 consider
 construct
 correlate
 deal with
 debate
 define
 demonstrate
 describe
 design
 detect
 determine
 develop
 discover
 discuss
 enhance
 establish
 estimate
 evaluate
 examine
 explain
 explore
 extend
 find
 focus on
 formulate
 generate
 identify
 illustrate
 implement
 imply
 improve
 incorporate
 indicate
 interpret
 introduce
 investigate
 measure
 model
 monitor
 note
 observe
 prefer
 obtain
 overcome
 perform
 point out
 predict
 present
 produce
 propose
 prove
 provide
 publish
 put forward
 realize
 recognize
 recommend
 record
 report
 reveal
 revise
 review
 show
 simulate
 sove
 state
 study
 support
 suggest
 test
 undertake
 use
 utilize

  3) 차별성, 의문점, 문제점 등 지적

 (an) alternative approach
 a need for
 although
 complicated
 desirable
 difficulty
 disadvantage
 drawback
 essential
 expensive
 however
 impractical
 inaccurate
 inconvenient
 it should be possible to
 limited
 not able to
 problem
 require
 risk
 time-consuming
 unsuccessful

   ● few researchers have addressed the problem of …
   ● there remains a need for …
   ● largely unsuccessful
   ● an alternative approach …
   ● … remains unclear.

  4) 현재 연구를 설명

 (to) facilitate
 (to) illustrate
 (to) improve
 (to) manage to
 (to) minimize
 (to) offer
 (to) outline
 (to) predict
 (to) present
 (to) propose
 (to) provide
 (to) reveal
 (to) succeed
 In this study/paper/investigation, we…
 address
 analyze
 argue
 compare
 consider
 describe
 discuss
 emphases
 examine
 extend
 introduce
 present
 propose
 review
 show
 This study/paper/investigation
 
 considers
 describes
 examines
 extends
 includes
 presents
 reports
 reviews

   ● This paper focuses on …
   ● the purpose of this study is to describe and examine …
   ● in order to investigate …. significance …
 
2. 연구방법 부분에 많이 사용되는 표현들
  1) 재료, 방법에 관한 일반 소개나 전반적 설명 등

 was/were modified
 was/were carried out
 was/were chosen
 was/were conducted
 was/were collected
 was/were devised
 was/were found in
 was/were generated (by)
 was/were acquired (from/by)
 was/were obtained (from/by)
 was/were performed (by/in)
 was/were provided (by)
 was/were purchased (from)
 was/were supplied (by)
 was/were investigated

  2) 재료와 방법에 관한 구체적이고 상세한 정보 (보통 수동형으로 표현됨)

 was adopted
 was added
 was adjusted
 was applied
 was arranged
 was assembled
 was attached
 was calibrated
 was characterized
 was collected
 was combined
 was computed
 was consolidated
 was controlled
 was constructed
 was converted
 was created
 was designed
 was derived
 was distributed
 was divided
 was eliminated
 was employed
 was estimated
 was exposed
 was operated
 was extracted
 was filtered
 was fomulated
 was generated
 was incorporated
 was concluded
 was inserted
 was installed
 was located
 was maintained
 was maximized
 was measured
 was minimized
 was modified
 was normalized
 was obtained
 was optimized
 was plotted
 was positioned
 was prepared
 was quantified
 was recorded
 was regulated
 was removed
 was repeated
 was restricted
 was sampled
 was selected
 was separated
 was simulated
 was stabilized
 was substituted
 was tracked
 was trasferred
 was treated
 was utilized

  3) 자신의 선택을 정당화

 because
 by doing …, we were able to
 chosen for (+명사)
 chosen to (+부정사)
 provide a way of (+-ing)
 selected on the basis of ..
 so as to (+부정사)
 for the purpose of (+-ing 혹은 명사)
 in an attempt to (+부정사)
 in order to (+부정사)
 it was possible to (+부정사)
 offer a means of (+부정사)
 our aim was to (+부정사)
 so/such that
 to take advantage of
 which/this allows/allowed etc.
 with the intention of (+-ing)

 
3. 결과 부분에 많이 사용되는 표현들
  1) 인과 관계

 (be) a/the cause of
 (be) a/the consequence of
 (be) a factor in
 (be) a/the result of
 (be) due to
 accompany/(be) accompanied
 account for/(be) accounted for
 affect/(be) affected
 arise from
 ascribe to/(be) ascribed to
 associate/(be) associated
 attribute to/(be) attributed to
 bring about/(be) brought about
 cause/(be) caused
 come from
 connect to/(be) connected to
 contribute to
 create/(be) created
 derive/(be) derived
 effect/(be) effected
 elicit.(be) elicited
 give rise to
 generate/(be) generated
 influence/(be) influenced
 initiate/(be) initiated
 link/(be) linked
 originated in
 produce/(be) produced
 relate/(be) related
 result from/in
 stem from
 trigger/(be) triggered
 yield

  2) 인과관계에서 원인의 표현법을 부드럽게 하는 경우
   ● It appears that …
   ● It can/may (therefore) be inferred/assumed that …
   ● It is (very/highly/extremely) probable that …
   ● It is (widerly/generally) accepted that …
   ● It is/may be resonalb e to suppose/assume that …
   ● It is/may be thought/recognized/believed/felt that …
   ● It is/may/can be assumed that …
   ● It stems (likely) that …
   ● It would seem/appear that …
   ● The evidece points out to the likelihood/probability that …
   ● The evidence suggest that …
   ● There is a clear/good/definite/strong/possibility that …
   ● There is evidence to indicate that …
   ● This implied/seems to imply/may imply that …
   ● Apparantely, (therefore),
   ● There seems to be/is a tendencey to
   ● It is thought/said/recognized that …

  3) 연구목표나 현재 연구를 다시 언급
   ● as discussed previously,
   ● as mentioned earlier/before
   ● as outlined in the inrtoduction,
   ● as reported
   ● in order to …., we examined …
   ● it is important to reiterated that …
   ● it is known from the literature that …
   ● it was predicted that …
   ● our aim/propose/intention was to …
   ● since/because …, we investiaged …
   ● the aformentioned theroy/aim/prediction et.
   ● to investigated …, we needed to
   ● we reasoned/predicted that …
   ● in order to …, we examined …
   ● to investigate …, we needed to …

  4) 결과를 전망

 according to Fig. 1
 as can be seen from/in Fig. 1
 as detailed in Fig. 1
 as evident from/in the figure
 as illustrated by Fig. 1
 as indicated/listed/shown in Fig. 1
 can be found/observed identified in Fig. 1
 compare Fig. 1 and 4 shows that …
 data in Fig. 1 suggest that …
 displayed in Fig. 1
 inspection of Fig. 1 indicated
 is/are given/represented in Fig. 1
 is/are visible in Fig. 1
 we observed from Fig. 1 that
 in Fig. 1 we compare/present etc…
 results are given in Fig. 1

5) 구체적이고 핵심적인 결과를 상세하게 설명

 accelerate(d)
 all
 change(d)
 decline(d)
 decrease(d)
 delay(ed)
 drop(ed)
 exit(ed)
 expand(ed)
 fall/fell
 find/found
 increase(d)
 constant
 different
 equal
 found
 higher
 highest
 identical
 lower
 present
 seen
 unaffected
 unchanged
 uniform
 match(ed)
 none
 occur(red)
 peak(ed)
 precede(d)
 produce(d)
 reduce(d)
 remain(ed) constant
 remained the same
 rise/rose
 sole/ly
 vary/varied

6) 성취도나 기여도

 accurate
 allow
 effective
 enhanced
 exact
 improved
 new
 novel
 achieve
 better
 consistent
 demonstrate
 ensure
 guarantee
 obtain
 validate
 significant
 simple
 suitable
 superior
 compare well with
 for the first time
 in good agreement

 
4. 논의/결론 부분에서 많이 사용되는 표현들
  1) 기존 연구와 자신의 연구와의 관련성

 his/Out study/method/result/approach is:
 analogous to
 comparable to
 compatible with
 consistent with
 identical (to)
 in contradiction to
 in contrast to
 in good agreement (with)
 in line with
 significantly different (to/from)
 the first of its kind
 (very/remarkably) similar (to)
 unlike
 This/Our study:
 broadens
 challanges
 compared well (with)
 confirms
 contradicts
 corresponds to
 corroborated
 differs (from)
 extends
 expands
 goes against
 lends support to
 mirrors
 modifies
 proves
 provides insight into/support for
 refuted
 supports
 tends to refute
 verify

  2) 성취도나 기여도

 accurate
 advantage
 appropriate
 beneficial
 comprehensive
 convincing
 effective
 encouraging
 evident
 feasible
 evident
 exact
 important
 productive
 realistic
 relevant
 robust
 stable
 straightforward
 strong
 successful
 superior
 undeniable
 useful
 valid
 valuable
 assist
 compare well with
 confirm
 could lead to
 enable
 enhance
 ensure
 facilitate
 help to
 improve
 is able to
 offer an understanding of
 outperform
 prove
 provide a framework
 provide insight into
 provide the first evindence
 remove the need for
 represent a new approach to
 reveal rule out
 solve
 succeed in
 support
 yield